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Письмо Артемию Троицкому, 1980-й год Группа "Аквариум" была задумана и осуществлена в июле 1972 года, после того, как Борис Гребенщиков, начинающий, но уже известный в определенных кругах гитарист, приехал в Ленинград с юга, где имел столкновения с советской милицией из-за прописки. Вернувшись в ..
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Опубликовано в: Клуб: Мировая политика

0





Россия глазами ЦРУ

14.09.2015




Introduction





Background:

Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge
from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually
conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new
ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific.
Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the
country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial
acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05
contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament
and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War
I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the
overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN
seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53)
strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost
of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following
decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost
(openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism,
but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered
the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Following economic and
political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN’s term (1991-99), Russia shifted
toward a centralized semi-authoritarian state in which the leadership seeks to legitimize
its rule through managed elections, populist appeals by President PUTIN, foreign
policy focused on enhancing the country’s geopolitical influence - particularly
in the former Soviet Union - and continued economic growth. Russia has severely
disabled a Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the
North Caucasus.




Geography





Location:

North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west
of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean



Geographic coordinates:

60 00 N, 100 00 E



Map references:

Asia



Area:


total: 17,098,242 sq km
land: 16,377,742 sq km
water: 720,500
sq km
country comparison to the world:
1




Area - comparative:

approximately 1.8 times the size of the US
Area comparison map:
RUSSIA
approximately 1.8 times the size of the US similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which
has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle
encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the
bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged
in an X pattern centered in the white band




Land boundaries:


total: 22,408 km
border countries (14): Azerbaijan 338 km, Belarus
1,312 km, China (southeast) 4,133 km, China (south) 46 km, Estonia 324 km, Finland
1,309 km, Georgia 894 km, Kazakhstan 7,644 km, North Korea 18 km, Latvia 332 km,
Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 261 km, Mongolia 3,452 km, Norway 191 km, Poland
(Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Ukraine 1,944 km



Coastline:

37,653 km



Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploit ation





Climate:

ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European
Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary
from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in
the steppes to cool along Arctic coast



Terrain:

broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra
in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions



Elevation extremes:


lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633
m (highest point in Europe)



Natu ral resources:
wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber
note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources

Land use:
agricultural land: 13.1%
arable land 7.3%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 5.7%
forest: 49.4%
other: 37.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 43,460 sq km (2008)

Total renewable water resources: 4,508 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 66.2 cu km/yr (20%/60%/20%)
per capita: 454.9 cu m/yr (2001)


Natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia
volcanism: significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (elev. 4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky

Environment - current issues: air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

Geography - note: largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak; Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is estimated to hold one fifth of the world's fresh water

People and Society

Nationality:
noun: Russian(s)
adjective: Russian

Ethnic groups: Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9%
note: more than 190 ethnic groups are represents in Russia's 2010 census (2010 est.)

Languages: Russian (official) 96.3%, Dolgang 5.3%, German 1.5%, Chechen 1%, Tatar 3%, other 10.3%
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2010 est.)

Religions: Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)
note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule


Population: 142,423,773 (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world:
10




Age structure:


0-14 years: 16.68% (male 12,204,992/female 11,556,764)
15-24 years:
10.15% (male 7,393,188/female 7,064,060)
25-54 years: 45.54% (male 31,779,688/female
33,086,346)
55-64 years: 14.01% (male 8,545,371/female 11,409,076)
65 years
and over: 13.61% (male 5,978,578/female 13,405,710) (2015 est.)

Flag: RUSSIA three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national
coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem
encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; the banner
is based on the former blue-white-blue flag of the Federal Republic of Central America;
the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, while the white
band represents the land between the two bodies of water, as well as peace and prosperity
similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in
the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA
on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras,
which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band




Dependency ratios:


total dependency ratio: 43.1%
youth dependency ratio: 24%
elderly
dependency ratio: 19.1%
potential support ratio: 5.2% (2015 est.)



Median age:


total: 38.9 years
male: 36 years
female: 41.9 years (2014 est.)





Population growth rate:

-0.04% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world:
200




Birth rate:

11.6 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world:

168




Death rate:

13.69 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world:

10




Net migration rate:

1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
country comparison to the
world:
51




Urbanization:


urban population: 74% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization:
-0.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)



Major urban areas - population:

MOSCOW (capital) 12.166 million; Saint Petersburg 4.993 million; Novosibirsk
1.497 million; Yekaterinburg 1.379 million; Nizhniy Novgorod 1.212 million; Samara
1.164 million (2015)
Sex ratio:


at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24
years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years:
0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.45 male(s)/female
total population:
0.86 male(s)/female (2015 est.)



Infant mortality rate:


total: 6.97 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.81 deaths/1,000 live births
female:
6.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world:

160




Life expectancy at birth:


total population: 70.47 years
male: 64.7 years
female: 76.57 years
(2015 est.)
country comparison to the world:
152




Total fertility rate:

1.61 children born/woman (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world:
179




Contraceptive prevalence rate:

68%
note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2011)



Health expenditures:

6.5% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world:
106




Physicians density:

4.31 physicians/1,000 population (2006)



Hospital bed density:

9.7 beds/1,000 population (2006)



Drinking water source:


improved:
urban: 98.9% of population rural: 91.2% of population total:
96.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.1% of population rural: 8.8%
of population total: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)



Sanitation facility access:


improved:
urban: 77% of population rural: 58.7% of population total:
72.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 23% of population rural: 41.3%
of population total: 27.8% of pop ulation (2015 est.)



HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

NA



HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

NA



HIV/AIDS - deaths:

NA



Major infectious diseases:


degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial
diarrhea
vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis
note: highly pathogenic
H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible
risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact
with birds (2013)



Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

26.2% (2014)
country comparison to the world:
46




Education expenditures:

4.1% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world:
110




Literacy:


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male:
99.7%
female: 99.6% (2015 est.)



School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):


total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2012)





Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:


total: 14.8%
male: 14.5%
female: 15.1% (2012 est.)
country
comparison to the world:
78





Government





Country name:


conventional long form: Russian Federation
conventional short form:
Russia
local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form: Rossiya
former:
Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic



Government type:

federation



Capital:


name: Moscow
geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 36 E
time
difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note:
Russia has 11 time zones, which includes two that were added in 2014



Administrative divisions:

46 provinces (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular
- respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug),
9 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod),
and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')
oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk),
Arkhangel'sk, Ast rakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'
republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)
autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi-Yugra (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)
krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'sk (Chita)
federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg]
autonomous oblast: Yevreyskaya [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)
note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
note 2: the United States does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol

Independence: 24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)

National holiday: Russia Day, 12 June (1990) "59"

Constitution: several previous (during Russian Empire and Soviet eras); latest drafted 12 July 1993, adopted by referendum 12 December 1993, effective 25 December 1993; amended 2008 (2013)

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts "61"

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)
head of government: Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Arkadiy Vladimirovich DVORKOVICH (since 21 May 2012), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Dmitriy Olegovich ROGOZIN (since 23 December 2011), Sergey Eduardovich PRIKHODKO (since 22 May 2013), Yuriy Petrovich TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013)
cabinet: the "Government" is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers, all appointed by the president; the premier is also confirmed by the Duma
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 4 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018); note - term length extended to 6 years from 4 years in late 2008, effective after the 2012 election; there is no vice president; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
election results: Vladimir PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN (United Russia) 63.6%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV (CPRF) 17.2%, Mikhail PROKHOROV(Civic Platform) 8%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY (LDPR) 6.2%, Sergey MIRONOV (A Just Russia) 3.9%, other 1.1%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV (United Russia) approved as premier by Duma; vote - 299 to 144
note: there is also a Presidenote: there is also a Presidential Administration that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president

Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (166 seats; 2 members in each of the 83 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg - appointed by the top executive and legislative officials; members serve 4-year terms) and the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of February 2014, the electoral system reverted to a mixed electoral system for the 2016 election in which one-half of the members are directly elected by simple majority vote and one-half directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: State Duma - last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in December 2016)
election
results: State Duma - United Russia 49.6%, CPRF 19.2%, A Just Russia 13.2%, LDPR
11.7%, other 6.3%; seats by party - United Russia 238, CPRF 92, A Just Russia 64,
LDPR 56
note: the State Duma now includes 2 representatives each from the Republic
of Crimea and Federal City of Sevastopol, two annexed Ukrainian regions that the
United States does not recognize as part of Russia



Judicial branch:


highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (consists of
170 members organized into the Judicial Panel for Civil Affairs, the Judicial Panel
for Criminal Affairs, and the Military Panel); Constitutional Court (consists of
19 members); note - in February 2014, Russia’s Superior Court of Arbitration was
abolished and its former authorities transferred to the Supreme Court, which in
addition to being the country’s highest judicial authority for appeals, civil, criminal,
administrative cases, and military cases, and the disciplinary judicial board, now
has jurisdiction over economic disputes
judge selection and term of office:
all members of Russia's 3 highest courts nominated by the president and appointed
by the Federation Council (the upper house of the legislature); members of all 3
courts appointed for life
subordinate courts: Higher Arbitration Court; regional
(kray) and provincial (oblast) courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city courts; autonomous
province and district courts; note - the 14 Russian Republics have court systems
specified by their own constitutions



Political parties and leaders:

A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV] Communist Party of the Russian Federation or
CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV] Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]
United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]
note: 78 political parties are registered
with Russia's Ministry of Justice (as of January 2014), but only four parties
maintain representation in Russia's national legislature



Political pressure groups and leaders:

Confederation of Labor of Russia or KTR Federation of Independent Trade Unions
of Russia Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights Memorial Movement Against
Illegal Migration Russkiye Solidarnost The World Russian People's Congress Union
of the Committees of Soldiers' Mothers Union of Russian Writers
other:
business associations; environmental organizations; religious groups (especially
those with Orthodox or Muslim affiliation); veterans groups



International organization participation:

APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS,
CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20,
GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC
(NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer),
OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA,
UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC



Diplomatic representation in the US:


chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey Ivanovich KISLYAK (since 16 September
2008)
chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
[1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708
FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
consulate(s)
general: Houston, San Francisco
consulate(s): New York, Seattle



Diplomatic representation from the US:


chief of mission: Ambassador John Francis TEFFT (since 19 November 2014)
embassy:
Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow
mailing address: PSC-77,
APO AE 09721
telephone: [7] (495) 728-5000
FAX: [7] (495) 728-5090
consulate(s)
general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg



Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
note: the colors
may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations,
there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag
inspired several other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolors of the same
colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav
colors



National symbol(s):

bear, double-headed eagle; national colors: white, blue, red



National anthem:


name: "Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (National Anthem of the Russian
Federation)
lyrics/music: Sergey Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Aleksandr Vasilyevich
ALEKSANDROV
note: in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former
Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written
by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943







Economy




Economy - overview: Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolated, centrally-planned economy towards a more market-based and globally-integrated economy, but stalling as a partially reformed, statist economy with a high concentration of wealth in officials' hands. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak and the private sector remains subject to heavy state interference. Russia is one of the world's leading producers of oil and natural gas, and is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia's manufacturing sector is generally uncompetitive on world markets and is geared toward domestic consumption. Russia's reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices. The economy, which had averaged 7% growth during 1998-2008 as oil prices rose rapidly, was one of the hardest hit by the 2008-09 global economic crisis as oil prices plummeted and the foreign credits that Russian banks and firms relied on dried up. In 2014, economic growth declined further when Russia forcibly violated Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, and interfered in Ukraine’s internal affairs. In the second half of 2014, the Russian ruble lost about half of its value, contributing to increased capital outflows that reached $151.5 billion for the year; the ruble remains volatile. Declining oil prices, lack of economic reforms, and the imposition of foreign sanctions have contributed to the downturn and created wide expectations the economy will continue to slump. In April 2015, the Russian Ministry of Economic Development predicted that the Russia’s economy will contract by 3% in 2015, and average only 2.5% growth through 2030.

GDP (purchasing

power parity): $3.565 trillion (2014 est.) $3.543 trillion (2013 est.) $3.497 trillion (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2014 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 7

GDP (official exchange rate): $1.857 trillion (2014 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.6% (2014 est.) 1.3% (2013 est.) 3.4% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
"78"

GDP - per capita (PPP): $24,800 (2014 est.) $24,700 (2013 est.) $24,300 (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2014 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 69

Gross national saving: 23% of GDP (2014 est.) 23.3% of GDP (2013 est.) 27.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 51.4%
government consumption: 19.7%
investment in fixed capital: 19.6%
investment in inventories: 2.2%
exports of goods and services: 29.7%
imports of goods and services: -22.6%
(2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 36.3%
services: 59.7% (2014 est.)


Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables , fruits; beef, milk

Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries (including radar, missile production, advanced electronic components), shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159

Labor force:
75.25 million (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:
8




Labor force - by occupation:


agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 27.8%
services: services: 62.5% (2012)





Unemployment rate:

5.1% (2014 est.) 5.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
46

"88"




Population below poverty line:

11% (2013 est.)



Household income or consumption by percentage share:


lowest 10%: 5.7%
highest 10%: 42.4% (2011 est.)



Distribution of family income - Gini index:

42 (2012) 41.7 (2011)
country comparison to the world:
50




Budget:


revenues: $416.5 billion
expenditures: $408.3 billion (2014 est.)





Taxes and other revenues:

20.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:
161




Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

0.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:
32




Public debt:

13.4% of GDP (2014 est.) 8.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
note: data cover general
government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities
other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities;
the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental
debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in
the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments
for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
country comparison to the
world:
147




Fiscal year:

calendar year



Inflation rate (consumer prices):

11.4% (2014 est.) 6.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
213




Central bank discount rate:

17% (2014 est.) 8% (31 December 2011)
note: this is the so-called refinancing
rate, but in Russia banks do not get refinancing at this rate; this is a reference
rate used primarily for fiscal purposes
country comparison to the world:
6




Commercial bank prime lending rate:

11.3% (2014 est.) 9.47% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the
world:
71




Stock of narrow money:

$158.6 billion (1 December 2014 est.) $320.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world:
26




Stock of broad money:

$926.8 billion (31 October 2014 est.) $1.087 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world:
19




Stock of domestic credit:

$882.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $984.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world:
17




Market value of publicly traded shares:

$874.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $796.4 billion (31 December 2011) $1.005
trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world:
17




Current account balance:

$57.41 billion (2014 est.) $32.76 billion (2013 es t.)
country comparison
to the world:
12




Exports:

$520.3 billion (2014 est.) $527.3 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison
to the world:
10




Exports - commodities:

petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products,
chemicals, and a wide variety of civilia n and military manufactures



Exports - partners:

Netherlands 10.7%, Germany 8.2%, China 6.8%, Italy 5.5%, Ukraine 5%, Turkey
4.9%, Belarus 4.1%, Japan 4% (2013)



Imports:

$323.9 billion (2014 est.) $315 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison
to the world:
19




Imports - commodities:

machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products,
meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel "109"




Imports - partners:

China 16.5%, Germany 12.5%, Ukraine 5.2%, Belarus 5%, Italy 4.4%, US 4.3%
(2013)



Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$385.5 billion (31 December, 2014 est.) $509.6 billion (31 December 2013
est.)
country comparison to the world:
7




Debt - external:

$683.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $728.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world:
20




Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$606 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $566.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world:
16




Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$533.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $479.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world:
16




Exchange rates:

Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar - 67.7 (19 December 2014 est.) 32.73 (2013
est.) 30.84 (2012 est.) 29.382 (2011 est.) 30.368 (2010 est.)




Energy





Electricity - production:

1.054 trillion kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
4




Electricity - consumption:

1.037 trillion kWh (2013 est.)
countr y comparison to the world:
4




Electricity - exports:

15.7 billion kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
12




Electricity - imports:

2.7 billion kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
53




Electricity - installed generating capacity:

239.7 million kW (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world:
4




Electricity - from fossil fuels:

69.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the
world:
110




Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

10.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the
world:
18




Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

20.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the
world:
93




Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world:

119




Crude oil - production:

10.05 million bbl/day (31 September 2014 est.)
country comparison to the
world:
3




Crude oil - exports:

4.625 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
2




Crude oil - imports:

17,610 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
70




Crude oil - proved reserves:

80 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:

8




Refined petroleum products - production:

4.812 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world:
4




Refined petroleum products - consumption:

3.32 mil lion bbl/day (2013 est.)
cou ntry comparison to the world:
5




Refined petroleum products - exports:

2.968 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
1




Refined petroleum products - imports:

28,040 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
94




Natural gas - production:

668 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
2




Natural gas - consumption:

413.5 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
3




Natural gas - exports:

196 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
1




Natural gas - imports:

8.2 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world:
28




Natural gas - proved reserves:

47.8 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:

1




Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

1.782 billion Mt (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world:
5





Communications





Telephones - fixed lines:


total subscriptions: 39.43 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants:
28 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:
7




Telephones - mobile cellular:


total: 221 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world:
7




Telephone system:


general assessment: the telephone system is experiencing significant changes;
more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital
lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; progress made toward building
the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market ec onomy; the estimated
number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to more than
235 million in 2011; fixed-line service has improved but a large demand remains

domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk,
and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have
modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are
available in many areas; in rural areas, telephone services are still outdated,
inadequate, and low-density
international: country code - 7; connected internationally
by undersea fiber optic cables; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat,
Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2011)



Broadcast media:

6 national TV stations with the federal government owning 1 and holding a controlling
interest in a second; state-owned Gazprom maintains a controlling interest in a
third national channel; government-affiliated Bank Rossiya owns controlling interest
in a fourth and fifth, while the sixth national channel is owned by the Moscow city
administration; roughly 3,300 national, regional, and local TV stations with over
two-thirds completely or partially controlled by the federal or local governments;
satellite TV services are available; 2 state-run national radio networks with a
third majority-owned by Gazprom; roughly 2,400 public and commercial radio stations
(2007)



Radio broadcast stations:

AM 323, FMAM 323, FM about 1,500, shortwave 62 (2004)



Television broadcast stations:

7,306 (1998)



Internet country code:

.ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain ".su"
that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out



Internet users:


total: 84.4 million
percent of population: 59.3% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world:
7





Transportation





Airports:

1,218 (2013)
country comparison to the world:
5




Airports - with paved runways:


total: 594
over 3,047 m: 54
2,438 to 3,047 m: 197
1,524 to
2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 95
under 914 m: 125 (2013)



Airports - with unpaved runways:


total: 624
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437
m: 69
914 to 1,523 m: 81
under 914 m:
457 (2013)



Heliports:

49 (2013)



Pipelines:

condensate 122 km; gas 163,872 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,378 km; oil 80,820
km; oil/gas/water 40 km; refined products 13,658 km; water 23 km (2013)



Railways:


total: 87,157 km
broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified)
narrow
gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island)
note: an additional 30,000
km of non-common carrier lines serve industries (2014)
country comparison to
the world:
2




Roadways:


total: 1,283,387 km
paved: 927,721 km (includes 39,143 km of expressways)
unpaved:
355,666 km (2012)
country comparison to the world:
5




Waterways:

102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000-km system
in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black
Sea) (2009)
country comparison to the world:
2




Merchant marine:


total: 1,143
by type: bulk carrier 20, cargo 642, carrier 3, chemical
tanker 57, combination ore/oil 42, container 13, passenger 15, passenger/cargo 7,
petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 84, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker
3
foreign-owned: 155 (Belgium 4, Cyprus 13, Estonia 1, Ireland 1, Italy 14,
Latvia 2, Netherlands 2, Romania 1, South Korea 1, Switzerland 3, Turkey 101, Ukraine
12)
registered in other countries: 439 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belgium 1, Belize
30, Bulgaria 2, Cambodia 50, Comoros 12, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 46, Dominica 3,
Georgia 6, Hong Kong 1, Kiribati 1, Liberia 109, Malaysia 2, Malta 45, Marshall
Islands 5, Moldova 5, Mongolia 2, Panama 49, Romania 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 13,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11, Sierra Leone 7, Singapore 2, Spain 6, Vanuatu
7, unknown 19) (2010)
country comparison to the world:
11




Ports and terminals:


major seaport(s): Kaliningrad, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Primorsk, Vostochnyy
river
port(s): Saint Petersburg (Neva River)
oil terminal(s): Kavkaz oil terminal
container
port(s) (TEUs): Saint Petersburg (2,365,174)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Sakhalin
Island




Military





Military branches:

Ground Troops (Sukhoputnyye Voyskia, SV), Navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, VMF),
Air Forces (Voyenno-Vozdushniye Sily, VVS); Airborne Troops (Vozdushno-Desantnyye
Voyska, VDV), Missile Troops of Strategic Purpose (Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo
Naznacheniya, RVSN) referred to commonly as Strategic Rocket Forces, and Aerospace
Defense Troops (Voyska Vozdushno-Kosmicheskoy Oborony or Voyska VKO) are independent
"combat arms," not subordinate to any of the three branches; Russian Ground
Troops include the following combat arms: motorized-rifle troops, tank troops, missile
and artillery troops, air defense of the Ground Troops (2014)



Military service age and obligation:

18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered
for the draft at 17 years of age; 1-year service obligation (conscripts can only
be sent to combat zones after 6 months of training); reserve obligation for non-officers
to age 50; enrollment in military schools from the age of 16, cadets classified
as members of the armed forces
note: the chief of the General Staff Mobilization
Directorate announced in May 2013 that for health reasons, only 65% of draftees
called up during the spring 2013 draft campaign were fit for military service, and
over 12% of these were sent for an additional medical examination (by w ay of comparison,
69.9% in 2012 and 57.7% in 2011 were deemed fit for military service); approximately
50% of draft-age Russian males receive some type of legal deferment each draft cycle
(2014)



Manpower available for military service:


males age 16-49: 34,765,736
females age 16-49: 35,410,779 (2013 est.)





Manpower fit for military service:


males age 16-49: 22,597,728
females age 16-49: 23,017,006 (2013 est.)





Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:


male: 696,768
female: 664,847 (2013 est.)



Military expenditures:

3.49% of GDP (2014) 3.18% of GDP (2013) 2.92% of GDP (2012) 2.71% of GDP (2011)

country comparison to the world:
16





Transnational Issues





Disputes - international:

Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan
through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed
islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with
the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty
dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group,
known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern
Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia,
and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty
formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent
recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour
relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed
delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a
one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary
agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya)
and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish
Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical
border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after
the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble
referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920
Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial
claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble
has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the
Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Lithuania and Russia committed
to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty
ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified
transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave
into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border,
where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation
of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between
Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to
the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation
was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian
Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US;
Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits
of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment
its 2001 CLCS submission



Refugees and internally displaced persons:


refugees (country of origin): 383,323 asylum seekers and 911,549 applicants
for other forms of legal stay (Ukraine) (2015)
IDPs: at least 25,378 (armed
conflict, human rights violations, generalized violence in North Caucasus, particularly
Chechnya and North Ossetia) (2014)
stateless persons: 113,474 (2014); note
- Russia's stateless population consists of Roma, Meskhetian Turks, and ex-Soviet
citizens from the former republics; between 2003 and 2010 more than 600,000 stateless
people were naturalized; most Meskhetian Turks, followers of Islam with origins
in Georgia, fled or were evacuated from Uzbekistan after a 1989 pogrom and have
lived in Russia for more than the required five-year residency period; they continue
to be denied registration for citizenship and basic rights by local Krasnodar Krai
authorities on the grounds that they are temporary illegal migrants



Trafficking in persons:


current situation: Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for
men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking,
although labor trafficking is the predominant problem; workers from Russia and other
countries in Europe, Central Asia, and Asia, including Vietnam and North Korea,
are subjected to conditions of forced labor in Russia’s construction, manufacturing,
agriculture, grocery store, maritime, and domestic services industries, as well
as forced begging, waste sorting, and street sweeping; North Koreans contracted
under bilateral government arrangements to work in the timber industry in the Russian
Far East reportedly are subjected to forced labor; Russian women and child ren were
reported to be victims of sex trafficking in Russia, Northeast Asia, Europe, Central
Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, while women from European, Southeast Asian, African,
and Central Asian countries were reportedly forced into prostitution in Russia

tier rating: Tier 3 - Russia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for
the elimination of trafficking and is not making a significant effort to do so;
prosecutions of trafficking offenders remains low in comparison to the scope of
Russia’s trafficking problem; in 2013, the government did not develop or deploy
a formal system for the identification of trafficking victims or their referral
to protective services, although some victims were reportedly cared for through
ad hoc efforts; victims were routinely detained and deported; the government has
not investigated allegations of slave-like conditions of North Korean workers in
Russia; the Russian Security Council has not made a decision on an anti-trafficking
national action plan (2014)



Illicit drugs:

limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine,
mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication
program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American
cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central
Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals;
corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates